Because we draw upon a variety of sources in our discussions and meditations, the following list of definitions is provided for easy reference.
Self-identification, the part of the psyche that forms an idea of self, property, privacy, and ego. This is the most basic mote of animals and humans which demonstrate strong self-awareness and sentience. It can become more complex through the development of Buddhi.
Comprehensive reason. This is an outgrowth of manas and is a major organizational and intuitive part of the psyche. Buddhist allows us not only to develop logic, but also see it in relation to more subtle factors, including empathy, circumstance, etc, and extrapolate wisdom from that experience. It aids in developing a more complex form of ahamkara.
The subjective mental state of an individual. The chitta is made up of many constituent thoughts and ideas, and is a reflection of the multitude of factors affecting oneself. Citta is a development of ahamkara which facilitates the complex growth of one's psyche.
An Eastern Orthodox Christian practice very similar to samatha, involving manifesting inner silence in order to hear God.
An sensory part of psyche. Indriyas are numerous, though often simplified for the sake of study and discussion, related as a sense of touch, taste, smell, etc. In reality, the indriyas have enormous permutations and affect all parts of our psyche. An indriya is a node through which we receive and transmit sensory data to and from our consciousness.
General cognition. The ability to follow and create paths of logic, interpret data, and work out day to day life. Manas is a development of the citta into more logical forms, helping to sort the data that the citta encounters. It overcomes instinctual forms of intelligence and moves into more conscious modes.
Recitation of specific syllables to help train the mind into remembering certain patterns of meditation.
An exercise used following vipasanna to generate empathy towards one's fellow beings.
Generally understood as a hand gesture made during a meditation to help remember or reinforce certain concepts central to the practice.
A particular method of yoga which a person has devised for themselves to follow.
Samatha / Shamatha
This is generally called Centring Meditation for our uses. It uses techniques to calm the mind and make it a peaceful place, in order to prepare it for other meditations. It is generally held as one of the two key methods used in all Buddhist meditation.
Sutta / Sutra
A Buddhist or Hindu teaching.
Vipassana / Vipasyana
This is generally called Insight Meditation for our uses. It is an analytical form of meditation which focuses seeing clearly into an issue such as one's own behaviour, a problem in one's life, or other such situations. This is generally held as one of the two key methods used in all Buddhist meditation.
Viññana / Vijñana
Consciousness as a holistic concept. It affords us a bird's-eye view of the four constituent properties (ahamkara, citta, manas, and buddhi) as they mature through our practice, as well as manifestations of consciousness not strictly defined through these definitions.
A form of samatha meditation used primarily in Zen practice. It focuses specifically on quieting the mind and centring using a Kung'an/Koan – an obtuse question or idea with which to train the mind.
Practice, in the most basic terms. Yoga is more specifically about developing one's psyche, body, or both along particular lines. When engaged in a specific form, this is called a sadhana or method.